Autonomous stack technology is external hardware/software package, combined with a set of sensors and components, which can automate nearly any type of existing road- legal vehicle. This autonomous vehicle solution allows our clients to choose the most appropriate vehicle type for the service – from accessible vans, cutaways, to full-size transit buses. 

 

 


SENSE

Automated cars perceive and interpret their surroundings. Sensors provide all the information used by the automated vehicle for perception of its entire surroundings. 

Cameras

Cameras enable obstacle detection and avoidance to navigate safely through environments.

Radar (Radio Direction and Raging)

Radar monitors the vehicle's surroundings (road, vehicles, pedestrians, etc.) and detects
distances to objects and cars.

LIDAR (Light Imaging, Detection and Ranging)

Lidar emits pulses of infrared light and measures the time it takes for these pulses to return after hitting nearby objects. Data is recorded and compiled to map the vehicle’s surroundings in 3-D  and real time. Lidar works with radar to detect obstacles and their distance and monitors vehicle’s surroundings.

PLAN

Automated vehicles decide in real time which driving strategy is the best in order to resolve the current traffic situation and reach their destinations.

Global Positioning System (GPS) and Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)

GPS and GNSS work together to identify the vehicle’s location. This allows agencies to monitor schedule and route adherence. GPS uses real time geographical data received from several  GPS satellites to calculate longitude, latitude, speed and course to support navigation. GNSS  enables vehicle localization and identification of the vehicle’s position on roads.

Ultrasonic Sensors


These sensors send ultrasonic pulses which are reflected by objects or barriers to monitor the vehicle’s surroundings and determine distances to obstacles. Ultrasonic sensors support  obstacle detection, avoidance, and forms the basis for parking and maneuvering systems.

Odometry Sensors

Odometry sensors complement and improve GPS information.

Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU)

 
IMU allows a GPS receiver to work when GPS-signals are unavailable, such as in tunnels or
inside parking structures, or when electronic interference is present.

ACT

The central vehicle computer calculates the values used by the vehicle's powertrain, braking or steering systems to implement individual driving maneuvers.

Control System

The control system fuses data from multiple cameras, as well as lidar, radar, and ultrasonic sensors, to accurately assess the entire 360-degree environment around the vehicle to produce a dynamic representation, including both static and dynamic objects.

Safety

Stack technology offers extensive safety features to protect passengers, pedestrians, cyclists, other road users, and the vehicle itself. With multiple layers of sensors, redundant braking  systems, emergency buttons, and other fail-safes, the SAV detects and avoids obstacles to  ensure continuous, safe operations.

V2X (Vehicle-to-Everything)

V2X uses information provided by surrounding vehicles and road‐side equipment to establish knowledge about the environment. (Front of the bus)
  • Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I): V2I technologies capture vehicle-generated traffic data, wirelessly providing information such as advisories from the infrastructure to the vehicle to inform the vehicle of safety, mobility, or environment-related conditions.
  • Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V): V2V communication is the ability to wirelessly exchange information about the speed and position of surrounding vehicles. The goal of the communication is in helping to avoid accidents and incidents, along with easing traffic congestion.